World Languages

Cristina Perez, Department Chair

The benefit of knowing another language contributes to Friends’ Central’s commitment to developing globally minded, culturally aware graduates. Students are required to take two consecutive years of a language, and most take a language for four years. The majority of students enter the Upper School having already completed the first level of French, Spanish, or Latin and further their studies for two more years and beyond to the advanced level. Other students start their language studies or begin a new language in grade 9. In French and Spanish, the curriculum is rich with opportunities for speaking, listening, reading, and writing. In Latin, the focus is on developing translation skills through the mastery of grammatical concepts and the acquisition of vocabulary. Courses in each language range from introductory to advanced literature and analysis.

The process of teaching a modern language begins with the belief that each student can attain advanced proficiency. Our approach is multidisciplinary and contemporary, taking advantage of technology to expose our students to a variety of native speakers and cultures and to stress that language is a communication tool. Students are encouraged to speak and write in the target language, gaining confidence in their abilities with practice. Latin is not spoken in class and prose composition is not emphasized. Understanding the cultures of antiquity and the medieval world is essential in placing literary works in context and an important component in instruction.

Each language’s classroom experience is supplemented by opportunities for travel abroad. Latin students may travel to Italy to see the monuments of the Romans – ancient and modern – and read their Latin inscriptions. French and Spanish students may take part in exchange opportunities with schools in Lyon, France and Seville, Spain. A summer service program in Peru is also available for students to further their study of the Spanish language.

Finally, interested students may take part in national language competitions and join clubs such as Le Club Francophone, Latin Club, or the Latino Culture Club.

Spanish

Spanish I: Intro to Spanish Language & Culture

In the first year, students develop their communication skills through listening, speaking, reading, and writing in Spanish. Videos, dialogues, skits, and e-textbook activities are used to practice vocabulary, grammar, listening comprehension, and pronunciation. This course provides a supportive atmosphere to help students develop the confidence to talk about themselves while learning about the Spanish-speaking world. As the year progresses, this course is taught increasingly in Spanish, as students are introduced to the variety of Spanish-speaking cultures in the Americas and Spain.

Spanish II

This course begins with an extensive formal review of
grammar, and students are expected renew vocabulary, verb forms, and grammar structures acquired in Spanish I.
Emphasis is given to the development of listening and speaking skills. Taught largely in Spanish, students work throughout the year on preparing skits, completing creative projects, and writing short compositions to develop writing and speaking skills. Students also gain insight into Hispanic cultures through texts, videos, and short readings.

Spanish II Advanced

It is expected that students in the immersion-style environment of this class are proficient in the grammatical concepts presented in the first-year course. In addition to improving listening and speaking skills, an increased focus is given to extensive reading and writing assignments. To supplement the text, students create projects that include the writing and filming of videos for the class and giving oral presentations utilizing presentational iPad apps. Enrollment in this course is by teacher recommendation.

Spanish III

This course begins with an extensive review of the grammar principles covered in the previous years, followed by a study of advanced grammar structures. Students are expected to use their growing knowledge to communicate their ideas in different situations. Compositions are assigned to strengthen writing skills. Students work individually or in groups to prepare creative projects, oral presentations, and skits. Throughout the year, students read a variety of short writings about Hispanic history and culture, as well as contemporary newspaper and magazine articles, forming the basis for both written and oral production. In the winter, students watch a Spanish movie or a dramatic
television series and discuss issues raised by them. In the spring, students read and discuss a grouping of short
stories or other extended material to further their proficiency in reading, writing, and speaking

Spanish III Advanced

This course continues the immersion-style environment
introduced in the previous years. After a thorough review of grammatical principles, advanced grammatical structures are studied and applied to oral and written communication. Special attention is given to vocabulary building, oral proficiency, and strengthening writing skills. Students work individually or in groups to prepare oral reports, skits, and creative projects, and students are expected to discuss Latino cultures, ancient civilizations, and current events. Film units are used to improve listening comprehension and promote class discussion. Enrollment in this course is by teacher recommendation.

Spanish IV

This course strengthens and reviews the language skills students have developed through their first three years of study. Listening and speaking activities are presented in a systematic fashion. Grammatical concepts are reviewed to allow the students to clearly express their ideas. Students engage in class discussions in which they express their views on the readings, current events, and topics of personal interest. Readings include short stories, poems, plays, and online news articles. These texts help the students communicate with ease in Spanish, develop their analytic approach to literature, and improve their writing skills. Discussions of Latino cultural systems are an integral part of the course, and film units, online resources, and songs are used to supplement these offerings. This course is open to students who have completed Spanish III.

The Contemporary Latino Experience

This course continues the development of students’
cultural understanding of the Spanish-speaking world as they build skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The course is discussion-oriented and project-based, with curricular units evolving from areas of student interest. Some topics have included “El Mejor Restaurante: Best Latino Restaurant in Philadelphia,” “Narcotráifo: Drug Wars in Mexico,” “¿Qué Hablas?: The Variety of Spanish Accents,” and “La Canción: From Poetry To Song.” Students review grammar as it arises in the articles, recipes, songs, videos, and movies that provide the foundation for hands-on activities and in-depth analysis of the cultural experiences they study, discuss, and practice in class. This course is open to students who have completed Spanish III and above.

Advanced Spanish: History & Culture of Latin America & Spain

This college-level Spanish course has as its focus the
Latin American identity with respect to Latin America’s
relationship with Spain. The texts include studies of art
history, comparative religions, and political history. Many of the readings come from Carlos Fuentes’ El Espejo Enterrado (The Buried Mirror), which he wrote in commemoration of Columbus’ 1492 “discovery” of the Americas. Other texts include short stories, movies, and poems. In addition, a social awareness of Latino cultures is fostered through discussion of current events. Grammatical structures are reviewed and incorporated into the literary analyses students write on the class readings. Enrollment in this course is by teacher recommendation.

The following two Advanced Spanish Literature courses will alternate each year:

Advanced Spanish Literature: Jorge Luis Borges & Julio Cortázar (fall) and Federico García Lorca (spring)

This yearlong course is the equivalent of an early intermediate college literature course covering selected works by the Latin American authors, Jorge Luis Borges and Julio Cortázar, and by the Spanish poet and playwright, Federico García Lorca. We will read all works in their original form, and we will take the time to analyze the texts in depth. The emphasis of this course is on the advanced development of critical analytical skills and oral discussion. Special attention will be given to writing expression and vocabulary acquisition. Grammatical structures are reviewed and applied to the written analyses. Enrollment in this course is by teacher recommendation.

Advanced Spanish Literature: Ana María Matute & Miguel de Unamuno (fall) and Gabriel García Márquez and Isabel Allende (spring)

This yearlong course is the equivalent of an intermediate college literature course covering selected works by the Spanish poet, playwright, and philosopher Miguel de Unamuno; short stories by the Spanish writer Ana María Matute; and selected works by two of the best-known Latin American authors, Gabriel Garcia Márquez (Colombia) and Isabel Allende (Chile). All works are read in their original form and analyzed in depth. The emphasis of this course is on the advanced development of critical analytical skills and oral discussion. Special attention will be given to written expression and vocabulary building. Grammatical structures are reviewed and applied to the written analyses. Enrollment in this course is by teacher recommendation.

French

French I: Intro to French Language and Culture

In this course, students develop their communication skills through listening, speaking, reading, and writing in French.Videos, dialogues, skits, and e-textbook activities are used to practice vocabulary, grammar, listening comprehension, and pronunciation. A supportive classroom atmosphere helps students develop the confidence to talk about themselves and their worlds while learning about Francophone cultures in the world. As the year progresses, the course is taught increasingly in French.

French II/II Advanced

This course initially reviews and then builds on the skills developed in French I, reinforcing pronunciation and essential grammatical, lexical, and cultural material while providing more advanced material in each domain. Students develop greater confidence and facility in expressing themselves in French, as well as in understanding others. Taught in French, this course encourages students to talk about themselves, their families, and their world, as well as to explore the lives and cultures of people of the French-speaking world, emphasizing the beauty and diversity of other traditions and lifestyles. Skits and presentations help students internalize new vocabulary and grammatical structures and use them in context. Students increase their oral proficiency through active practice using a variety of listening comprehension materials. Along with the D’Accord-2 program and films, students explore online resources and, in the spring, read short texts in French.

Enrollment in the advanced level is by teacher recommendation.

French III/III Advanced

Film is the critical component in this course. Taught in French, the course emphasizes discussion, oral and written proficiency, and listening comprehension. Students learn about important cinematographic movements, different film genres, and how to understand the role of the camera, while developing increasing confidence and oral proficiency; they discuss themes, relationships, and character development through their study of the films. Students in the advanced course become significantly more proficient in their mastery and use of complex grammatical structures; students in the non-accelerated course focus on improving their oral and written expression to convey their perceptions. The text, Cinéphile, coordinates the study of most of the program’s 10 films, along with current events, geography, culture, grammar, and vocabulary development. As an introduction to literature,the course ends with the study of Le Petit Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, providing the foundation for studying literary themes and the human experience.

Enrollment in the advanced level is by teacher recommendation.

The Contemporary French Experience

This course centers on cultural units shaped by the students and the teacher in a collaborative classroom experience. Grammar and vocabulary are studied in the context of those cultural units explorations, not as separate discrete units. The objective is to develop the students’ comprehension, expression, and cultural understanding through the study of the French-speaking world: France, Africa, Asia, The Pacific, The Caribbean, Québec, and the USA. Units of study may include Twitter en Français: Research using Twitter; Le Pain Quotidien: Tasting and Ranking Baguettes from local bakeries – and the actual baking of baguettes; Les Deux Paris: Traditional and Modern Paris; Les Francophones: French speakers outside of France; “Vedettes” du passé: Who was the real Marie Antoinette?; La Chanson: French music of many styles -- traditional, pop, rap/hip-hop. Many of the best units, however, come from students. This course is open to students who have finished French III and above.

Advanced French Literature: Short Stories & Theater

This course has the structure of an introductory college-level course. Thematically organized, it focuses on famous plays and short stories from the 17th through 20th centuries by Maupassant, Mérimée, Molière, Reza, and Sartre, among others. The course explores themes such as fear and folly, class and gender equality, satire, and philosophy. All works are in the original French. Lively and provocative discussions, led by the teacher or students, focus on the evolution of the protagonist, the narrator’s point of view, and structural components of the works, all enhancing the students’ understanding and engagement. Films based on the works offer an additional layer to help students further grasp the historical period and the author’s message. Students will research online current events related to French government, politics, and society to increase their awareness of French culture, mores, and thought as background to the literature studied. Enrollment in the advanced level is by teacher recommendation.

Advanced French Literature: Poetry & the Novel

This course has the structure of an introductory college-level course. Thematically organized, it focuses on novels and poetry from the 17th through 20th centuries. The emphasis is on the advanced development of critical and analytical skills through written essays and oral discussion. The core of the program targets specific political and social themes through songs and poems; Francophone novels by Albert Camus and Mariana Ba, among others, provide an in-depth study of a variety of cultures and the people that inhabit them. All works are in the original French. A diverse selection of authors such as Rimbaud, Baudelaire, Camus, Senghor, and Voltaire offers students the opportunity to explore a wide range of topics and genres, including African literature and existentialism. Enrollment in the advanced course is by teacher recommendation.

Latin

Latin II

In addition to completing the basics of Latin grammar,
students read and translate selections in prose adapted from various ancient Roman authors. The focus is on the development of translation skills. Students pursue a study of Roman archaeology, concentrating on the monuments of the Julio-Claudians. A requirement is an oral presentation on the historical veracity of a character as portrayed in the I, Claudius series, which will be viewed as a component of the class syllabus.

Latin II Advanced

Advanced second year students complete their study of
Latin grammar at an accelerated pace. The goal is to acquire and even master the skills necessary to read and translate passages of text as written by the ancient Roman authors. Prose composition exercises are included in the syllabus. A requirement is an oralpresentation on the historical veracity of a character as portrayed in the I, Claudius series, which will be viewed as a component of the class syllabus. In studying Roman archaeology, the class will focus on the monuments of the Julio-Claudians. Enrollment in this course is by teacher recommendation

Latin III

Students in Latin III translate Medieval Latin prose and poetry written after the end of the Roman Empire until the Italian Renaissance. The class will use the texts Medieval Mosaic by A.W. Godfrey and K. Sidwell’s Reading Medieval Latin. Selections from Jerome’s Latin version of the Hebrew and Greek scriptures, i.e. the Latin Vulgate Bible, and later historical and biographical writings are translated. Students are introduced to historical and literary scholarship, along with the archaeological research pertinent to the texts they are reading.A student’s ability to translate passages at sight will be a factor in assessing performance. This course is open to students who have successfully completed Latin II or Latin II Advanced.

Latin III Advanced

Advanced third year students complete the curriculum
of Latin III at an accelerated pace with more challenging
assessments and increasing focus on the ability to translate passages at sight. Prose composition from English into Latin is included in the syllabus. Enrollment in this course is by teacher recommendation.

Advanced Latin Literature: Caesar and Vergil

The focus of this course is the translation of selections of Caesar’s Commentarii de Bello Gallico and Vergil’s epic poem, The Aeneid. Students will also analyze characteristics or noteworthy features of each ancient author’s literary style: diction, the use of figures of speech, and for Vergil, meter. The standards for grading performance are very rigorous; in addition to literal translations on tests, critical essays (written in English) analyzing specific passages of Latin text are major components of the course. In these essays, students are expected to include the observations of historians and literary scholars found in articles assigned as supplementary reading or via online lectures. Facility in sight translation will be assessed in determining the grade average each semester. The syllabus generally follows that of the AP curriculum;students may opt to take the AP Latin test, but will be required to do additional work outside of class to complete the AP syllabus.

German

German Tutorial/Independent Study

A beginning and intermediate German tutorial will be offered in the fall. Sessions will be scheduled at the beginning of September after the tutorial group has been formed and will meet two to three blocks per week. Students will take advantage of some of the new online language learning tools now available and will also be working with traditional printed materials, including short stories and grammatical exercises. The tutorial will not be graded and will not appear on the transcript. Students will receive mid- and end-of-year special reports, and their participation will be noted in the school recommendations that accompany their college applications. Spaces will be limited.